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海管局:中國常駐國際海底管理局代表田琦大使在國際海底管理局第25屆理事會第一期會議“開發規章財務問題”議題下的發言

發布日期:2019-03-22 08:53:02

謝謝主席女士,   

首先,請允許我祝賀您當選為本屆理事會主席,中國代表團將全力支持您的工作。相信在您的領導下,本次會議一定會取得豐碩成果,獲得圓滿成功。  

借此機會,我要感謝上任理事會主席奧立夫·邁克爾巴特斯閣下。他不僅主持了第24屆理事會會議,還主持了上周四、五舉行的財務問題非正式工作組會。中國代表團感謝他剛剛就工作組會情況所作的報告,并愿就開發規章所涉財務問題發表如下看法:  

一、惠益分享是“區域”內資源開發整體制度設計不可或缺的重要內容。我們高興地看到,報告中特別提及,開發規章繳費機制包括兩方面:一是承包者需向海管局繳納多少費用,二是繳納的費用如何由海管局進行分配。這正是中國代表團一貫秉持的觀點,即惠益分享與繳費機制密不可分,兩者本質上都是對“區域”內活動產生收益的處置和再分配。惠益分享作為人類共同繼承財產原則的重要內容,理應在開發規章中加以規定。中方切實希望今后的財務問題研討會可對惠益分享問題進行專題研討。  

二、繳費機制不宜將特許使用權使用費與盈利分享相結合的制度排除在外。《聯合國海洋法公約》相關執行協定明確規定,繳費機制“應該考慮采用特許權使用費制度或結合特許權使用費與盈利分享的制度”。目前各方已就特許權使用費制度開展了研究和討論,但并未考慮特許權使用費與盈利分享相結合的制度。有觀點認為,混合繳費模式存在沉重繁重的行政費用以及不易實施等弊端。中方認為,在未對混合繳費模式進行深入研究的情況下,任何結論都缺乏實證支持。中方重申,希按照執行協定的要求,對特許權使用費與盈利分享相結合的繳費方式進行研究,并在此基礎上討論采用何種繳費機制。  

三、繳費機制應覆蓋三種礦產資源。現有財務模型都是僅針對多金屬結核的,多金屬硫化物和富鈷結殼的開采方式和金屬種類與結核明顯不同。中方支持報告中關于及時處理另外兩種礦產資源的繳費機制和繳費率問題的建議。  

四、開發規章財務制度應體現“公平對待”原則。《執行協定》附件第8節第1條(a)款要求,繳費制度“應公平對待承包者和管理局雙方”。中方認為,“公平對待”既要落實“人類共同繼承財產”原則,保障海管局代表的全人類的利益;也要遵循“健全商業原則”,使承包者有經濟動力從事生產。有關繳費制度是否、如何體現了“公平對待”,建議予以澄清和說明。  

五、開發規章財務制度應充分考慮陸上采礦的影響。 《執行協定》規定,“繳費率應不超過相同或類似礦物的陸上采礦繳費率的一般范圍,以避免給予深海采礦者人為的競爭優勢或使其處于競爭劣勢”。目前的財務模型似乎并未涉及陸上采礦,特別是深海采礦未來可能與全球金屬市場的相互影響,建議在此后研究中納入。  

謝謝主席女士。  

Translation  

The Statement of the Chinese Delegation on Financial Issues of the Exploitation Regulations at the Council Meeting of the First Part of the 25th Session of the International Seabed Authority  

(February 25, 2019)  

Thank you, Madam President.  

First of all, please allow me to congratulate you on your election as the President of the Council. You are assured of the full support of the Chinese delegation. I believe that under your leadership, this meeting will be surely fruitful and successful.  

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the past President, H.E Olav Myklebust. He presided over not only the Council meetings of the 24th Session, but also the open-ended informal working group in respect of financial model held last Thursday and Friday. The Chinese delegation is also grateful for the report he has just made on the working group and wishes to express the following views on the financial issues of the Exploitation Regulations:  

1. Benefit sharing is an integral part of the overall system governing the exploitation of the resources in the Area. We are pleased to see that the report specifically references that financial aspects of a payment mechanism can be grouped into two categories: (1) what a contractor will pay to the Authority; (2) how such money received will be distributed by the Authority. This is exactly the long held position of the Chinese delegation, namely, benefit sharing and payment mechanism are inseparable, and both of them are essentially the disposition and redistribution of the benefits derived from activities in the Area. As part of the important contents of the principle of the common heritage of mankind, it is appropriate for the issue of benefit sharing to be addressed by the Exploitation Regulations. China sincerely hopes that the future meetings with respect to financial matters would conduct special studies and discussions on the issue of benefit sharing.  

2. The payment mechanism should not exclude the combination of a royalty and profit-sharing system. The Implementing Agreement to UNCLOS provides that“[c]onsideration should be given to the adoption of a royalty system or a combination of a royalty and profit-sharing system.” At present, the parties have conducted study and discussion on the royalty system, but have not considered the system of combining royalty with profit-sharing. There is a view that the hybrid payment model would entail major administrative costs as well as practical challenges in implementation. However, China believes that without deep study on the hybrid payment model itself any conclusion in this regard would lack empirical support. We reiterated that as required by the Implementing Agreement the payment mechanism of a combination of a royalty and profit-sharing system should be studied, and only after this further discussion as to what payment mechanism to be adopted could be reasonably conducted.  

3. The payment mechanism should cover three mineral resources. The existing financial model is related to polymetallic nodules only. The exploitation technologies and metals of polymetallic sulphides and cobalt-rich crusts are significantly different from those of polymetallic nodules. China supports the recommendation that it is necessary to consider the payment mechanisms and rates of payment for the other two mineral resources in due course.  

4. The payment mechanism of the Exploitation Regulations should embody the principle of“fair treatment”. Section 8 Article 1 (a) of the Annex to the Implementing Agreement requires that the payment system“shall be fair both to the contractor and the Authority”. The wording“be fair” herein means that the payment system should not only fulfill the principle of“common heritage of mankind” to safeguard the benefit of mankind as a whole represented by the Authority, but also comply with the“sound commercial principle” enabling the Contractors to have the economic impetus to engage in production. It is therefore suggested to clarify and explain whether and how the payment mechanism has given effect to“fair treatment”.   

5. The payment mechanism of the Exploitation Regulations should take full consideration of the impacts of land-based mining. The Implementing Agreement provides that“the rates of payments under the system shall be within the range of those prevailing in respect of land-based mining of the same or similar minerals in order to avoid giving deep seabed miners an artificial competitive advantage or imposing on them a competitive disadvantage”. The current model does not consider the issue of land-based mining, especially the possibly future interactions between deep-sea mining and the global metal market, and it is recommended to take into account this matter in subsequent researches.   

Thank you, Madam President.  

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