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海管局:中國代表團團長、常駐國際海底管理局代表田琦大使在海管局第24屆會議大會“秘書長報告”議題下的發言

發布日期:2018-09-12 08:46:18

 7月23日至27日,國際海底管理局(以下簡稱“海管局”)第24屆大會會議在位于牙買加首都金斯敦的海管局總部召開。中國代表團團長、常駐國際海底管理局代表田琦大使率團與會,并于7月24日在大會“秘書長報告”議題下發言,全文如下:  

  主席先生,  

  中國代表團祝賀您當選本屆大會主席,我們將一如既往地支持主席和主席團工作,相信在您的領導下,本屆會議將取得圓滿成功。我們要感謝牙買加政府和人民一直以來對國際海底管理局工作給予的大力協助和寶貴支持。  

  主席先生,  

  中國代表團感謝秘書長所作年度報告。該報告全面梳理了過去一年海管局的各項工作。無論是秘書處內部工作,還是與其他相關國際組織開展的交流與合作,以及管理勘探合同和制定深海礦產資源開發規章等,都取得了顯著成果。中方對此表示贊賞,并期待海管局工作在未來取得更大進展。  

  當前,國際海底事務仍處在從勘探向開發過渡的關鍵階段。2017年海管局完成首次國際海底制度定期審查,并通過了審查委員會報告。報告中的部分要求已得到有效落實,如改變會議模式,今年首次舉行兩次海管局理事會會議;設立新的自愿信托基金,資助發展中國家理事會成員參會;加強對成員國現行相關國內法的了解和研究等。  

  制定戰略計劃是落實定期審查報告的重要內容。本次會議的一項重要任務就是審議并通過海管局戰略計劃。中方認為,戰略計劃是未來一段時期海管局工作的頂層設計,對推進國際海底事業向前發展具有重要意義。正如秘書長報告所列,根據1994年《執行協定》,海管局在開發工作計劃獲得核準前,肩負著“監測和審查深海底采礦活動方面的趨勢和發展,包括定期分析世界金屬市場情況和金屬價格、趨勢和前景”以及“研究‘區域’內礦物生產對可能受到最嚴重影響的這些礦物的發展中陸上生產國經濟可能產生的影響”等法定職責。這些法定職責應該在戰略計劃中得到充分體現。  

  在上周理事會會議上,各方就深海礦產資源開發規章進行了深入而熱烈的討論,不少問題已達成共識,同時還有許多問題需要進一步研究和探討。中方始終認為,開發規章涉及采礦、法律、技術、環境等多個領域,不能一蹴而就,其制定須遵循“充分討論、協商一致”原則,在具備堅實的事實和科學依據基礎上循序推進。開發規章本身應全面、完整、嚴格地遵守《公約》和1994年《執行協定》;應當體現全人類利益、擔保國及其承包者利益之間的合理平衡以及深海開發利用與深海環境保護之間的合理平衡。開發規章的核心目標是落實“人類共同繼承財產”原則,作為該項原則關鍵要素的惠益分享應該在開發規章中作出規定。此外,企業部獨立運作對于發展中國家參與“區域”內活動具有特殊意義,開發規章應對此作出安排。  

  根據《公約》,海管局有義務采取措施,確保海洋環境不受“區域”內活動可能的有害影響。區域環境管理計劃作為一種積極的劃區管理工具,是海管局在戰略層面采取的重要環保措施。中方認為,開發規章應對區域環境管理計劃這一重要環保事項作出具體規定;區域環境管理計劃的設立需要海管局的引領和承包者之間的合作;有關標準應與擬議中的BBNJ國際協定談判相協調。  

  主席先生,  

  中國積極參與國際海底事務,先后分別就開發規章草案和戰略計劃草案提交書面評論意見。中國重視履行擔保國責任和義務,在2016年《深海海底區域資源勘探開發法》實施后,啟動了配套法規的制定工作。中國國家海洋局于2017年頒布實施了三個涉及“區域”內勘探活動的規范性文件。  

  中國作為發展中國家,積極支持其他發展中國家參與海底事務。多年來,中國持續向管理局自愿信托基金捐款,用以資助發展中國家委員出席法技委和財委會議。今后,中方將繼續向海管局有關基金或項目捐款,支持國際海底事業穩步發展。  

  中國擔保的勘探合同承包者嚴格履行合同義務,并積極參與海管局有關深海環境保護工作。今年5月,中國勘探礦區承包者者中國大洋協會與海管局在中國青島聯合舉辦了“西北太平洋海山區區域環境管理計劃國際研討會”,會議成果為在相關海底區域設立區域環境管理計劃提供了寶貴基礎。  

  主席先生,  

  中方倡導構建人類命運共同體,與國際海底區域及其資源屬于人類共同繼承財產原則密不可分。中方愿與各方一道,本著共商共建共享的精神和原則,致力于促進深海礦產資源開發和深海環境保護,為增進全人類的共同利益和共同福祉作出貢獻。

   

  參考譯文:

  Mr. President,  

  The Chinese delegation congratulates you on your election to the presidency of the current session of the Assembly.  As always, we will support you and the Bureau in your work.  It is my conviction that, under your able leadership, the current session will be crowned with success. We wish to thank the Jamaican government and people for the enormous assistance and valuable support that they have accorded ISA over the years.  

  Mr. President,  

  The Chinese delegation wishes to thank the Secretary-General for the annual report which covers the full spectrum of work of the International Seabed Authority over the past year.  Notable results have been achieved, ranging from the internal work of the Secretariat to the exchange and cooperation with other international organizations, and from the management of exploration contracts to the development of regulations governing the exploitation of deep-sea mineral resources. The Chinese government registers its appreciations and expects ISA to achieve greater progress in future.  

  As we speak, international seabed affairs are still at a crucial juncture of transitioning from exploration to exploitation.  In 2017, ISA completed its first periodic review of the international seabed regime and adopted the report of the review committee.  To date, part of the requirements contained in the report has been met effectively, ranging from changing the format of meetings as a result of which two sessions of the Council have been held this year, a first in history, to establishing a new voluntary trust fund to finance the attendance of Council members from developing countries, and to boosting the understanding of and study on related current domestic laws of Member States.   

  Developing a strategic plan is an important area related to the implementation of the report on the periodic review. One of the most important tasks facing the current session is to consider and adopt the strategic plan of the Authority.  In China’s view, the strategic plan represents top-level design of the work of the Authority for the years to come, with an important bearing on advancing the international seabed undertaking.  As is stated in the Secretary-General’s report, according to the 1994 Implementing Agreement, prior to the approval of a plan of work for exploitation, ISA shoulders such mandated responsibilities as “monitoring and review of trends and developments relating to deep seabed mining activities, including regular analysis of world metal market conditions and metal prices, trends and prospects” as well as “study of the potential impact of mineral production from the Area on the economies of developing land-based producers of those minerals which are likely to be most seriously affected”.  All these statutory responsibilities should be fully reflected in the Strategic Plan. 

  At the Council session last week, the parties held in-depth and animated discussions on the Regulations on exploitation of deep-sea mineral resources, with consensus reached on many issues while many others still warrant further studies and exploration. It has always been China’s view that as the Exploitation Regulations concern many a field, from mining to law, technology and environment, the development of the Regulations simply cannot be accomplished overnight, and can only progress in a sequential manner on the solid basis of facts and scientific evidence and in accordance with the principle of “extensive discussion and consensus through consultations”. The Exploitation Regulations should be comprehensive and complete, based on scrupulous compliance with UNCLOS and the 1994 Implementing Agreement while reflecting the reasonable balance between the interests of mankind as a whole and those of the sponsoring States and their contractors as well as the reasonable balance between deep-sea exploitation/use and deep-sea environmental protection.  The core objective of the Exploitation Regulations is to apply the “common heritage of mankind” principle while stipulations should be made in the Regulations on benefit-sharing, which is a core element of this principle.  In addition, as the independent operation of the Enterprise is of special significance for the participation of developing countries in activities in the Area, specific arrangements should be made thereon in the Regulations.  

  Under the Convention, the Authority has the obligation to take measures to ensure that the marine environment does not suffer from the harmful effect that may arise from activities in the Area. As a tool for active regional management, regional environmental management plans (REMPs) constitute an important environmental protection measure adopted by the Seabed Authority at the strategic level. China believes that the Exploitation Regulations should specify as an important priority for environmental protection the REMPs whose development requires ISA’s leadership and cooperation among the contractors; the relevant standards should be aligned with the proposed international agreement under the BBNJ negotiations.   

  Mr. President,  

  As an active participant in international seabed affairs, China has submitted written comments on the draft Exploitation Regulations and the draft Strategic Plan respectively. China attaches great importance to fulfilling its responsibilities and obligations as a sponsoring State. After the promulgation of the Law on the Exploration for and Exploitation of Resources in the Deep Seabed Area in 2016, formulation of supporting legal regulations ensued. In 2017, the State Oceanic Administration of China promulgated three normative documents covering exploration activities in the Area.  

  As a developing country, China actively supports other fellow developing countries in participating in seabed affairs. For many years, China has continued to contribute to the Voluntary Trust Fund of the Authority to finance the participation of developing country members in meetings of the LTC and the Finance Committee. In future, China will continue to contribute to relevant funds or projects of the Authority in support of the steady development of the international seabed undertaking.  

  The exploration contractors sponsored by China have strictly fulfilled their contractual obligations and actively participated in ISA’s work for the protection of the deep seabed environment. Last May, COMRA, a Chinese mining-site exploration contractor, and ISA co-hosted in Qingdao, China the International Workshop on the Development of a REMP for Cobalt-rich Ferromaganese Crusts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The outcome of the workshop has laid a valuable foundation for the development of REMPs in other related seabed areas.  

  Mr. President,  

  The building of a community with shared future for mankind that China advocates is closely connected with the principle that the international seabed area and its resources are part and parcel of the common heritage of mankind. China is ready to work with all other parties, in keeping with the spirit and principle of wide consultation, joint contribution and shared benefit, in a concerted effort to promote the exploitation of deep-sea mineral resources and protection of the deep-sea environment, and to contribute to the common interests and well-being of mankind.  


  Thank you, Mr. President.  


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